Selection of reading material on social media and news, disinformation, verification and fact-checking

This list is nothing but a selection. It includes publications that deal with various aspects of social media and news, covering a wide range such as platforms, distribution strategies, production issues, trauma, trends, the misinformation / disinformation ecosystem, verification, OSINT and more. The focus lies on disinformation and its detection, verification and fact-checking. The list is nowhere near complete, but intended as a starting point into a topic about which much has been written in the recent past. More surely is to come, and lots is missing :).

To start with, here are some general recommendations for finding material on the topic (extracts and selection only).

Some potential sources for finding publications and research papers on disinformation detection and the spreading of misinformation with a more technical focus include:

  • The Journal of Computer Science and Technology (JCST), which publishes research on various topics related to computer science.
  • The Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling, & Prediction and Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (SBP-BRiMS), which covers research on social computing.
  • The Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL), which focuses on computational linguistics and natural language processing, and often includes papers on disinformation detection and misinformation spreading.
  • The arXiv preprint server, which hosts preprints of papers in various fields.

You can also use Google Scholar and other research paper search engines to search for recent publications and research papers.


The following journals are more social sciences oriented that include articles and research on disinformation and fact-checking:

  • The International Journal of Press/Politics – Publishes research on the intersection of the media, politics, and democracy.
  • The Journal of Information Technology & Politics – Research on the relationship between information technology and politics.
  • The Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication – Includes research on the social aspects of computer-mediated communication.
  • Misinformation Review – A scholarly journal that focuses on misinformation, disinformation, and fact-checking in the digital age.
  • Digital Journalism – Publishes research on digital journalism and the changing media landscape.
  • The International Journal of Communication -Includes a variety of aspects and facets of communication research.
  • The Journal of Media Innovations – Publishes research on the media industry.


Searchable database for scientific publications on disinformation:

The European Digital Media Observatory (EDMO) provides a searchable database of scientific articles on a variety of disinformation topics, called Scientific Publications Repository.


Other places to go to / start from (portal pages):

BBC, Beyond Fake News – lots of information, tools and tips around disinformation and how to counter it

Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma – about informed, innovative and ethical news reporting on violence, conflict and tragedy

European Commission – especially on policy and regulatory matters

European Digital Media Observatory (EDMO) – EC supported initiative against disinformation, covering the whole of the EU with so-called “EDMO Hubs

European Fact-Checking Standards Network – concentrating on standards of independence, transparency and methodological / journalistic quality in fact-checking space

European Journalism Centre – various aspects of (digital) journalism

Factchecking tools, sites and resources on Journalist’s Toolbox, presented by the Society of Professional Journalists

First Draft News – on misinformation, verification and social newsgathering

Google News Initiative – tools and tactics, trainings and courses

International Factchecking Network at Poynter – on various aspects of factchecking

International News Safety Institute – dedicated to journalists‘ safety

JournalismAI – of Polis at LSE focussing on AI and journalism

Pew Internet – research, facts & figures with a focus on the US

Tow Centre for Digital Journalism at Columbia Journalism School – exploring ways in which technology is changing journalistic practices and its consumption

Work of fact-checking organisations and the OSINT community (from Bellingcat to New York Times)


Mostly monographs (individual papers, publications and more) 

Adami, Marina (2023): Is ChatGPT a threat or an opportunity for journalism? Five AI experts weigh in. Francesco Marconi, Madhumita Murgia, Charlie Beckett and two startup founders discuss the impact of generative AI on the news industry. In: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.

AI4Media (2023): AI4 for the Media Industry. A Strategic Research Agenda from the AI4Media Industry.

AP / Rinehart, Aimee; Kung, Ernest (2022): Artificial Intelligence in Local News. A survey of US newsrooms’ AI readiness.

Ajder, H., Patrini, G. & Cullen, L. (2019). The state of deepfakes 2019: Landscape, threats, and impact. Deeptrace.

Barrera Rodriguez, Oscar / Guriev, Sergei M. / Henry, Emeric / Zhuravskaya, Ekaterina: Facts, Alternative Facts, and Fact Checking in Times of Post-Truth Politics (January 13, 2018). Paper available at SSRN or

BBC (no year – 2015): The Future of News.

Bellingcat – Truth in a Post-Truth World (2018).  (Film, 88 min). Mixed English – Dutch – German version with Dutch subtitles available on VPRO. German and French version available on ARTE in late Feb 2021 (may be removed from media centre at some stage).

Benkler, Y., Faris, R. & Roberts, H. (2018). Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics. UK: Oxford University Press.

Bernstein, Joseph: Bad News. Selling the Story of Disinformation. Harper’s Magazine, Sept 2021 Issue.

Blume, Michael (2020): Verschwörungsmythen – woher sie kommen, was sie anrichten, wie wir ihnen begegnen können. Patmos Verlag.

Bradshaw, Samantha; Howard, Philip N. (2019): The Global Disinformation Order. 2019 Global Inventory of Organised Social Media Manipulation. Oxford Internet Institute / University of Oxford.

Brodnig, Ingrid (2021): Einspruch! Verschwörungsmythen und Fake News kontern – in der Familie, im Freundeskreis und online. Brandstätter Verlag.

Brodnig, Ingrid (2018): Lügen im Netz: wie Fake News, Populisten und unkontrollierte Technik uns manipulieren. Brandstätter Verlag.

Brodnig, Ingrid (2016): Hass im Netz. Was wir gegen Hetze, Mobbing und Lügen tun können. Brandstätter Verlag.

Bruns, A. (2019): Filter bubble. Internet Policy Review, 8(4).

Cardenal, A. S., Aguilar-Paredes, C., Galais, C., & Pérez-Montoro, M. (2019): Digital technologies and selective exposure: How choice and filter bubbles shape news media exposure. International Journal of Press/Politics, 24(4), 465–486.

Centre for Law and Democracy (2022): Guide for Journalists on Documenting International Crimes.

Chan, Man-Pui Sally / Christopher R. Jones / Kathleen Hall Jamieson / Dolores Albarracin (2017): Debunking: A Meta-Analysis of the Psychological Efficacy of Messages Countering Misinformation. Sage Journals, Vol 28, Issue 11, 2017.

Chessen, M. (2017). The MADCOM future: How artificial intelligence will enhance computational propaganda, reprogram human culture, and threaten democracy… and what can be done about it. Atlantic Council, Dinu Patriciu Eurasia Center, and Brent Scowcroft Center on International Security.

Cinelli, M., De Francisci Morales, G., Galeazzi, A., Quattrociocchi, W., & Starnini, M. (2021): The echo chamber effect on social media. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(9), e2023301118.

Damstra, A., Boomgaarden, H. G., Broda, E., Lindgren, E., Strömbäck, J., Tsfati, Y., & Vliegenthart, R. (2021). What Does Fake Look Like? A Review of the Literature on Intentional Deception in the News and on Social Media. Journalism Studies, 22(14), 1947-1963.

Del Vicario, M., Bessi, A., Zollo, F., Petroni, F., Scala, A., Caldarelli, G., Stanley, H. E., & Quattrociocchi, W. (2016a): The spreading of misinformation online. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(3), 554.

Dubberley, Sam; Koenig, Alexa; Murray, Daragh (eds.) (2020): Digital Witness. Using Open Source Information for Human Rights Investigation, Documentation, and Accountability. Oxford University Press.

Dubberley, Sam and Michele Grant / First Draft News (2017): Journalism and Vicarious Trauma. A Guide for Journalists, Editors and News Organisations.

Elizabeth, Jane / American Press Institute (2017): After a decade, it’s time to reinvent social media in newsrooms.

Ellis, Hannah (2018): How to Prevent, Identify and Address Vicarious Trauma — While Conducting Open Source Investigations in the Middle East.

European Broadcasting Union / EBU (2018): Position Paper – ‘Fake News’ and the Information Disorder.

European Commission (2018): A multi-dimensional approach to disinformation. Report of the independent High level Group on fake news and online disinformation.

European Commission (2018): Flash Eurobarometer 464: Fake news and disinformation online. Presentation and Annex here.

European Commission (2018). Code of Practice on Disinformation.

European Commission (2021). European Commission Guidance on Strengthening the Code of Practice on Disinformation (COM(2021) 262 final).

European Commission (various years): numerous documents outlining EU initiatives and approaches. 

European External Action Service (2022): 2021 StratCom activity report – Strategic Communication Task Forces and Information Analysis Division.

European Commission (2022): The 2022 Code of Practice on Disinformation.

Eyewitness Media Hub / Sam Dubberley, Elizabeth Griffin, Haluk Mert Bal (2015): Making Secondary Trauma a Primary Issue: A Study of Eyewitness Media and Vicarious Trauma on the Digital Frontline.

Farkas, Johan (2023): This Is Not Real News: Discursive Struggles over Fake News, Journalism, and Democracy. DOI: 10.24834/isbn.9789178773169

Feinstein, Anthony; Audet, Blair; Waknine, Elizabeth (2014): Witnessing images of extreme violence: a psychological study of journalists in the newsroom. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine Open; 5(8) 1–7 DOI: 10.1177/2054270414533323.

Feinstein, Anthony (2006): Journalists under Fire. The Psychological Hazards of Covering War. The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Fletcher, R., Cornia, A., Graves, L., & Nielsen, R. K. (2018). Measuring the reach of “fake news” and online disinformation in Europe. Australasian Policing, 10(2).

Fiorella, Giancarlo (2022): How to Maintain Mental Hygiene as an Open Source Researcher.

Friedrichsen, Mike and Mühl-Bennighaus, Wolfgang (eds.) (2013): Handbook of Social Media Management. Value Chain and Business Models in Changing Media Markets. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg.

Frischlich, L. & Humprecht, E. (2021). Trust, Democratic Resilience, and the Infodemic. Policy Paper Series by the Israel Public Policy Institute: “Facing up to the Infodemic: Promoting a Fact-Based Public Discourse in Times of Crisis.”

Full Fact (2020): Fighting the causes and consequences of bad information.

Full Fact (2016): The State of Automated Factchecking.

Funke, D., & Famini, D. (2018). A guide to anti-misinformation actions around the world. Poynter.

Future Today Institute / Amy Webb (2018 and newer ones): 2018 Tech Trends For Journalism and Media.

Garrett, R. Kelly (2017): The „Echo Chamber“ Distraction: Disinformation Campaigns are the Problem, Not Audience Fragmentation. In: Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition (Vol 06, Issue 4, 2017). pp. 370-376. (restricted access).

Gelfert, Axel (2018). Fake News: A Definition. Informal Logic, 38(1), 84-117. DOI: 10.22329/il.v38i1.5068.

Goldstein, Josh A.; Sastry, Girish; Musser, Micah; DiResta, Renee; Gentzel, Matthew; Sedova, Katerina (2023): Generative Language Models and Automated Influence Operations: Emerging Threats and Potential Mitigations.

Graves, L., & Amazeen, M. A. (2019). Fact-Checking as Idea and Practice in Journalism. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communications.

Greifeneder, Rainer; Jaffe, Mariela; Newman, Eryn; Schwarz, Norbert (eds.) (2020): The Psychology of Fake News. Accepting, Sharing, and Correcting Misinformation. Routledge. (Open Access)

Grinberg, N., Joseph, K., Friedland, L., Swire-Thompson, B., & Lazer, D. (2019). Fake news on Twitter during the 2016 US presidential election. Science, 363(6425), 374-378.

Guess, Andrew.; Nagler, Jonathan & Tucker, Joshua (2019). Less Than You Think. Prevalence and Predictors of Fake News Dissemination on Facebook. Science Advances, 59(1), 1-8. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau4586.

Hanot, Clara; Bontcheva, Kalina; Alaphilippe, Alexandre; Gizikis, Alexis (for the European Parliament) (2019): Automated tackling of disinformation. Major challenges ahead.

Hao, Karen: How Facebook got addicted to spreading misinformation. MIT Technology Review, 11 March 2021.

Haslanger, Julia / CUNY Graduate School of Journalism and the Tow Center for Entrepreneurial Journalism (no year): Social Journalism: The Who, What, Where, When, Why and How.

Hassan, Nihad A.; Hijazi, Rami (2018): Open Source Intelligence Methods and Tools. A Practical Guide to Online Intelligence. Springer.

Headlines Network (2022): Vicarious Trauma. A guide for journalists and newsrooms to recognise vicarious trauma and mitigate against it.

Hermida, Alfred; Seth C. Lewis and Rodrigo Zamith (2014): Sourcing the Arab Spring: A Case Study of Andy Carvin’s Sources on Twitter During the Tunisian and Egyptian Revolutions. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication.

Heuer, Richards J, Jr. (1999): Psychology of Intelligence Analysis. Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency.

Hewlett Foundation / Joshua A. Tucker, Andrew Guess, Pablo Barberá, Cristian Vaccari, Alexandra Siegel, Sergey Sanovich, Denis Stukal, Brendan Nyhan (2018): Social Media, Political Polarization, and Political Disinformation: A Review of the Scientific Literature.

Higgins, Elliot (2021): We Are Bellingcat: An Intelligence Agency for the People.  Bloomsbury.

Higgins, Eliot (2023): How Open Source Evidence was Upheld in a Human Rights Court. Bellingcat.

Hohlfeld, Ralf; Harnischmacher, Michael; Heinke, Elfi; Lehner, Lea Sophia; Sengl, Michael (Hrsg.) (2020): Fake News und Desinformation. Herausforderungen für die vernetzte Gesellschaft und die empirische Forschung. Nomos, Baden-Baden.

House of Commons (UK), Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee (2018): Disinformation and ‘fake news’: Interim Report. Fifth Report of Session 2017–19.

Howard, P. N. (2020). Lie Machines. Yale University Press.

Howard, P. N., & Woolley, S. C. (Eds.). (2018). Computational Propaganda: Political Parties, Politicians, and Political Manipulation on Social Media. UK: Oxford University Press.

Hubert, A., Bright, J., & Howard, P. N. (August 2020). Social Media Junk News on Hydroxychloroquine and Trust in Science. University of Oxford.

International Center for Journalists / Posetti, Julie and Matthews, Alice (no year): A short guide to the history of ’fake news’ and disinformation.

International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN) at Poynter (2023): State of the Fact-Checkers 2022. 

Karlsson, Michael / Clerwall, Christer (2018): Transparency to the Rescue? Journalism Studies, 19:13, pp. 1923-1933.

Kertysova, K. (2018). Artificial intelligence and disinformation. Security and Human Rights Volume 29 Issue 1-4. pp. 55-81.

Kim B., Xiong A., Lee D., Han K. (2021): A systematic review on fake news research through the lens of news creation and consumption: Research efforts, challenges, and future directions. PLoSONE 16(12):e0260080.

Kleffner, Heike und Meissner, Michael (Hrsg.) (2021): Fehlender Mindestabstand. Die Coronakrise und die Netzwerke der Demokratiefeinde. Herder Verlag.

Kleis Nielsen, Rasmus (2021): How evidence can help us fight against COVID-19 misinformation. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.

Knuutila, Aleksi; Herasimenka, Aliaksandr; Au, Hubert; Bright, Jonathan; Nielsen, Rasmus; Howard, Philip N. (2020): Covid-related Misinformation on YouTube: The Spread of Misinformation Videos on Social Media and the Effectiveness of Platform Policies. Oxford Internet Institute.

Kolo, C.; Mütterlein, J.; Schmid, S. (2022): Believing Journalists, AI, or Fake News: The Role of Trust in Media. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.

Lewandowsky, Stephan / Ullrich K.H. Ecker / John Cook (2017): Beyond Misinformation: Understanding and Coping with The „Post-Truth“ Era. In: Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition (Volume 6, Issue 4, December 2017, Pages 353-369).  Paper here (restricted access).

Lewandowsky, S., & Cook, J. (2020). The Conspiracy Theory Handbook.

Marconi, Francesco (2020): Newsmakers: Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Journalism. Columbia University Press.

Masullo, Gina M.; Curry, Alexander L.; Wipple, Kelsey N. & Murray, Caroline (2021): The Story Behind the Story: Examining Transparency About the Journalistic Process and News Outlet Credibility. Journalism Practice.

Menczer, Philippo and Hills, Thomas (2020): Information Overload Helps Fake News Spread, and Social Media Knows It. Understanding how algorithm manipulators exploit our cognitive vulnerabilities empowers us to fight back. Scientific American, 1 Dec 2020.

Meßmer, Anna-Katharina; Sängerlaub, Alexander; Schulz, Leonie (2021): „Quelle: Internet“? Digitale Nachrichten- und Informationskompetenzen der deutschen Bevölkerung im Test. Stiftung Neue Verantwortung.

Newman, Nic; William H. Dutton and Grant Blank (2012): Social Media in the Changing Ecology of News: The Fourth and Fifth Estates in Britain. International Journal of Internet Science.

Nocun, Katharina und Lamberty, Pia (2021): True Facts. Was gegen Verschwörungserzählungen wirklich hilft. Quadriga Verlag.

Nocun, Katharina und Lamberty, Pia (2020): Fake Facts. Wie Verschwörungstheorien unser Denken bestimmen. Quadriga Verlag.

Nyhan, Brendan / Jason Reifler (2017):  The roles of information deficits and identity threat in the prevalence of misperceptions.

Nyhan, Brendan / Jason Reifler (2011): When Corrections Fail: The persistence of political misperceptions.

O’Connor, C., & Weatherall, J. O. (2019). The misinformation age: How false beliefs spread. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Open AI (2023): GPT-4 System Card.

Pennycook, Gordon; Cannon, Tyrone D. & Rand, David G. (2017). Prior Exposure Increases Perceived Accuracy of Fake News. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 147(12), 1865-1880. DOI: 10.1037/xge0000465.

Pennycook, Gordon; Epstein, Ziv; Mosleh, Mosen; Arechar, Antonio; Eckles, Dean; Rand, David (2019/2020): Shifting attention to accuracy can reduce misinformation online. (created 13 Nov 2019, last edited 27 Dec 2020 – preprint).

Persily, Nathaniel and Tucker, Joshua A. (eds.) (2020): Social Media and Democracy. The State of the Field and Prospects for Reform.  SSRC / Cambridge University Pres.

Peterandel, Sonja: Wie künstliche Intelligenz bei der Aufklärung von Kriegsverbrechen hilft. In: Der Spiegel / Spiegel Online, 14 March 2021.

Pew Research Center (various years): The State of the News Media: More here.

Pew Research Center (2018): Social Media Use in 2018.

Pomerantsev, P. (2019). This Is Not Propaganda: Adventures in the War Against Reality. New York: Public Affairs.

Primbs, Stefan (2016): Social Media für Journalisten. Redaktionell arbeiten mit Facebook, Twitter & Co. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Suarez, Eduardo (2023): How Bellingcat collects, verifies and archives digital evidence of war crimes in Ukraine.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Newman, N., Fletcher, S., Robertson, C. T., Eddy, K, & Nielsen, R. K. (2022): Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2022. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Ross Arguedas, Amy; Robertson, Craig T.; Fletcher, Richard; Kleis Nielsen, Rasmus (2022): Echo chambers, filter bubbles, and polarisation: a literature review.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis; Schulz, Anne; Fletcher, Richard (2021): An Ongoing Infodemic: How People in Eight Countries Access and Rate News and Information about Coronavirus a Year into the Pandemic.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Newman, N., Fletcher, R., Schulz, A., Andı, S., Robertson, C. T., & Nielsen, R. K. (2021): Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2021. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Toff, Benjamin; Badrinathan, Sumitra; Mont’Alverne, Camila; Ross Arguedas, Amy; Fletcher, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis (2020): What we think we know and what we want to know: perspectives on trust in news in a changing world.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Nic Newman with Richard Fletcher, Anne Schulz, Simge Ani, and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen (2020): Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2020.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Lucas Greves (2018): Understanding the Promise and Limits of Automated Fact-Checking.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Nic Newman (2018 – see also other years): Journalism, Media, and Technology Trends and Predictions 2018.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Annika Sehl, Alessio Cornia, Rasmus Kleis Nielsen (2018): Public Service News and Social Media.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Richard Fletcher, Alessio Cornia, Lucas Graves, and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen (2018): Measuring the reach of “fake news” and online disinformation in Europe.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Nic Newman with Richard Fletcher, Antonis Kalogeropoulos, David A. L. Levy and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen (2017): Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2017. [see also previous and later years].

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Tom Nicholls, Nabeelah Shabbir, Rasmus Kleis Nielsen (2017): The Global Expansion of Digital-Born News Media.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Lucas Graves and Federica Cherubini (2016): The Rise of the Fact-Checking Sites in Europe.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism / Nic Newman (2009): The rise of social media and its impact on mainstream journalism: A study of how newspapers and broadcasters in the UK and US are responding to a wave of participatory social media, and a historic shift in control towards individual consumers.

Sängerlaub, Alexander / Stiftung Neue Verantwortung (2018): Feuerwehr ohne Wasser? Möglichkeiten und Grenzen des Fact-Checkings als Mittel gegen Desinformation.

Rid, Thomas (2020): Active Measures: The Secret History of Disinformation and Political Warfare. Macmillan.

Sängerlaub, Alexander; Meier, Miriam; Rühl, Wolf-Dieter Rühl / Stiftung Neue Verantwortung (2018): Fakten statt Fakes. Verursacher, Verbreitungswege und Wirkungen von Fake News im Bundestagswahlkampf 2017.

Scheufele, D. A., & Krause, N. M. (2019): Science audiences, misinformation, and fake news. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(16), 7662.

Schwarz, Karolin (2020): Hasskrieger. Der neue globale Rechtsextremismus. Herder Verlag.

Seger, Elizabeth; Avin, Shahar; Pearson, Gavin; Briers, Mark; Ó Heigeartaigh, Seán; Bacon, Helena (2020): Tackling threats to informed decision- making in democratic societies. Promoting epistemic security in a technologically-advanced world. The Alan Turing Institute.

Shah, Dhruti (2023): What’s it like when your job involves wading through others’ suffering? I was left weeping and hopeless.

Silverman, Craig (ed.) (2020): Verification Handbook For Disinformation And Media Manipulation. European Journalism Centre, Maastricht.

Silverman, Craig (ed.) (2015): Verification Handbook for Investigative Reporting. European Journalism Centre, Maastricht.

Silverman, Craig / Tow Centre for Digital Journalism at Columbia University (2015). Lies, Damn Lies and Viral Content.

Skippage, Rebecca (2020): The role of public service media in the fight against disinformation. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism – Journalist Fellowship Paper.

Swire-Thompson, Briony and Ecker, Ullrich (2018). Misinformation and its Correction: Cognitive Mechanisms and Recommendations for Mass Communication. In: Misinformation and Mass Audiences. Editors: Southwell, Brian G.; Thorson, Emily A.; Sheble, Laura. University of Texas Press.

Tandoc Jr., Edson C.; Lim, Zheng Wei & Ling, Richard (2018). Defining »Fake News«. A Typology of Scholarly Definitions. Digital Journalism, 6(2), 137-153. DOI: 10.1080/21670811.2017.1360143.

The Bureau of Investigative Journalism (Niamh McIntyre, Rosie Bradbury and Billy Perrigo) (2022): Behind TikTok’s Boom: A Legion of Traumatized, $ 10-A-Day Content Moderators.

The Royal Society (2022): The online information environment: Understanding how the internet shapes people’s engagement with scientific information.

Tsfati, Y., Boomgaarden, H. G., Strömbäck, J., Vliegenthart, R., Damstra, A., & Lindgren, E. (2020). Causes and consequences of mainstream media dissemination of fake news: literature review and synthesis. Annals of the International Communication Association, 44(2), 157-173.

UNESCO / Julie Posetti, Julie; Shabbir, Nabeelah; Maynard, Diana; Bontcheva, Kalina; Aboulez, Nermine (2021): The Chilling: Global trends in online violence against women journalists.

UNESCO (2018): Journalism, Fake News & Disinformation. Handbook for Journalism Education and Training. Edited by Cherilyn Ireton and Julie Posetti.

Vaidyanathan, Siva (2018). Antisocial Media: How Facebook Disconnects Us and Undermines Democracy. UK: Oxford University Press.

Van Duyn, E.; Collier, J. (2018). ‘Priming and Fake News: The Effects of Elite Discourse on Evaluations of News Media’, Mass Communication and Society 22(1), 29–48.

Various authors / published by Annenberg School for Communication, First Draft News and Knight Foundation (2017): Understanding and Addressing the Disinformation Ecosystem. Conference proceedings of an event held on 15-16 Dec 2017.

Vos, Tim P.and / Craft, Stephanie (2017). The Discursive Construction of Journalistic Transparency. Journalism Studies, 18:12, pp. 1505-1522.

Vosoughi, Soroush; Deb Roy and Sinan Aral (2018): The spread of true and false news online. Science 359, 1146-1151. Link to paper here (access required).

Waisbord, S. (2018): Truth is What Happens to News: On Journalism, Fake News, and Post-Truth, Journalism Studies 19(13), 1866–78.

Walter, N.; Cohen, J.; Holbert; R. L.; Morag, Y. (2019): Fact-Checking: A Meta-Analysis of What Works and For Whom. Political Communication 37(3), 350–75.

Wardle, Claire and Derakhshan, Hossein (2017): Information Disorder. Toward an interdisciplinary framework for research and policy making. Report for the Council of Europe, Strasbourg. Report here.

Wardle, Claire; Sam Dubberley and Pete Brown / Tow Centre for Digital Journalism at Columbia University (2014): Amateur Footage: A Global Study of User Generated Content in TV News Output.

Weikmann, Teresa & Lecheler, Sophie (2023): Cutting through the Hype: Understanding the Implications of Deepfakes for the Fact-Checking Actor-Network. Digital Journalism, DOI: 10.1080/21670811.2023.2194665

West, J. D., & Bergstrom, C. T. (2021): Misinformation in and about science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(15), e1912444117.


Here’s an older list of mine with resources for verification of eyewitness media and related issues.

Here are collections / readings lists / recommended reading from others that may be of interest / relevance, depending on the focus of your investigation and topic:

Alexios Mantzarlis, formerly of Poynter’s IFCN provides a list of books on factchecking and the like, including ratings.


I know I have left out a hell of a lot here – but, as said at the beginning: this is just for starters. If you feel particular publications and resources are missing here, please drop me a line and I will add them if I find them suitable for the overall topic. Thanks a lot!



About jospang

I do media stuff. And have lots of other interests. Some of that I share, some I don't.
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